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what are black holes made of

Black holes may solve some of the mysteries of the universe. Edited by Nebula27, 27 April 2019 - 12:22 PM. [127], Gravitational collapse is not the only process that could create black holes. The most general stationary black hole solution known is the Kerr–Newman metric, which describes a black hole with both charge and angular momentum. I haven't the slightest idea what I'm talking about! This explosion is called a supernova. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Secondly, the red shift of the spectral lines would be so great that the spectrum would be shifted out of existence. For the record, my feeling is that string theory is NOT a workable theory of quantum gravity, and How to prove episodes of academic misconduct? They can thus be used as an alternative way to determine the mass of candidate black holes. They can prolong the experience by accelerating away to slow their descent, but only up to a limit. However, one way or another everything falling in would reach the ring singularity, even though. However, a minority of relativists continued to contend that black holes were physical objects,[118] and by the end of the 1960s, they had persuaded the majority of researchers in the field that there is no obstacle to the formation of an event horizon. Image credit: Alain Riazuelo / CC BY-SA 2.5. Some progress has been made in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is because the Black Hole continues to exist and can grow in size just by dumping more mass into it. [66] This is different from other field theories such as electromagnetism, which do not have any friction or resistivity at the microscopic level, because they are time-reversible. [170] A phase of free quarks at high density might allow the existence of dense quark stars,[187] and some supersymmetric models predict the existence of Q stars. I realize that due to the nature of black holes, we may never be able to truly know what they are composed of beyond mathematical and theoretical conjecture. But the 'no force known' comes with a caveat, 'What is unknown?'. A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. Thirdly, the mass would produce so much curvature of the space-time metric that space would close up around the star, leaving us outside (i.e., nowhere). How to prepare rice in rice cooker so it won't become sticky or clumpy, like Indian takeout in the US? One of these objects packs more than three times the mass of the sun into the diameter of a city. [191], A few theoretical objects have been conjectured to match observations of astronomical black hole candidates identically or near-identically, but which function via a different mechanism. New exotic phases of matter could push up this bound. The degree to which the conjecture is true for real black holes under the laws of modern physics, is currently an unsolved problem. This seemingly causes a violation of the second law of black hole mechanics, since the radiation will carry away energy from the black hole causing it to shrink. Then comes what is mass? Black holes are formed when giant stars explode at the end of their lifecycle. [129] This would put the creation of black holes firmly out of reach of any high-energy process occurring on or near the Earth. Even though the collapse takes a finite amount of time from the reference frame of infalling matter, a distant observer would see the infalling material slow and halt just above the event horizon, due to gravitational time dilation. This seemingly creates a paradox: a principle called "monogamy of entanglement" requires that, like any quantum system, the outgoing particle cannot be fully entangled with two other systems at the same time; yet here the outgoing particle appears to be entangled both with the infalling particle and, independently, with past Hawking radiation. The content is provided for information purposes only. Question: I googled this question while looking for an answer to something even more vague:  what is a black hole made of? John Michell, B. D. F. R. S. In a Letter to Henry Cavendish, Esq. [76] For a black hole with nonzero spin and/or electric charge, the radius is smaller,[Note 2] until an extremal black hole could have an event horizon close to[77], The defining feature of a black hole is the appearance of an event horizon—a boundary in spacetime through which matter and light can pass only inward towards the mass of the black hole. When it comes to Black holes, there is no force known in the current understanding of the Universe that can resist total collapse to a dimensionless point: The Singularity. It is not a physical object, but a geometrical, In GR, using the Schwarschild metric (idealized non-rotating black hole), spacetime is well defined right, In the Kerr metric (rotating black hole, which is probably true for all "real" black holes), the dynamics, are more complicated since the singularity is no longer a mathematical point but an infinitely thin. the dynamics are more complicated than in the idealized Schwarzschild metric. We know that matter falling into black holes is no different from the matter which can be found lurking around the rest of the Universe. A possible exception, however, is the burst of gamma rays emitted in the last stage of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Thanks for insight dmckee. [170], The X-ray emissions from accretion disks sometimes flicker at certain frequencies. The physical properties of a black hole, which as you have said are mass, charge, and angular momentum, are measurable and are properties that derive from the event horizon of the black hole. To get around the problem, astrophysicists need a theory of gravity that is compatible with Quantum Mechanics that might just describe the physics inside a black hole. These include the gravastar, the black star,[192] and the dark-energy star. [25] A few months after Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, a student of Hendrik Lorentz, independently gave the same solution for the point mass and wrote more extensively about its properties. That the ~skin~ is actually all there is, a holographic N-1 projection of its genesis and its nature. [72], Due to the relatively large strength of the electromagnetic force, black holes forming from the collapse of stars are expected to retain the nearly neutral charge of the star. Please re-enable javascript to access full functionality. But in 1939, Robert Oppenheimer and others predicted that neutron stars above another limit (the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit) would collapse further for the reasons presented by Chandrasekhar, and concluded that no law of physics was likely to intervene and stop at least some stars from collapsing to black holes. Astronomy & Space Exploration, and Others: Since the release of the Event Horizon image, Ive been considering the long debated question of what are black holes made of. To anyone who has an understanding of general relativity (GR), that statement is wrong. Observing time on NRAO telescopes is available on a competitive basis to qualified scientists after evaluation of research proposals on the basis of scientific merit, the capability of the instruments to do the work, and the availability of the telescope during the requested time. Since Hawking's publication, many others have verified the result through various approaches. — Rob. [169], As such, many of the universe's more energetic phenomena have been attributed to the accretion of matter on black holes. By the Rev. Called “quantum gravity”, an understanding of how gravity works in a black hole requires physicists to figure out what happens to gravity at atomic-scale levels. Are black holes made of dark energy? After a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. I suppose they are made of "mass". Do supermassive black holes contain a singularity? [21][7][22] Scholars of the time were initially excited by the proposal that giant but invisible stars might be hiding in plain view, but enthusiasm dampened when the wavelike nature of light became apparent in the early nineteenth century. In particular, active galactic nuclei and quasars are believed to be the accretion disks of supermassive black holes. In this way, astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems, and established that the radio source known as Sagittarius A*, at the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses. Penrose and Hawking proved this (proved in the mathematical sense of proof) in the 1960's using, Note that this is within the framework of GR, which is a classical (non-quantum) theory. Black holes formed by the collapse of individual stars are relatively small, but incredibly dense. Since the release of the Event Horizon image, I've been considering the long debated question of what are black holes made of. In 1995, Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa showed that counting the microstates of a specific supersymmetric black hole in string theory reproduced the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy. The objects must therefore have been extremely compact, leaving black holes as the most plausible interpretation. [121], Despite the early universe being extremely dense—far denser than is usually required to form a black hole—it did not re-collapse into a black hole during the Big Bang. [86] Eventually, the falling object fades away until it can no longer be seen. [148] "In all, eight radio observatories on six mountains and four continents observed the galaxy in Virgo on and off for 10 days in April 2017" to provide the data yielding the image two years later in April 2019. These black holes are often referred to as Schwarzschild black holes after Karl Schwarzschild who discovered this solution in 1916. We have no way to predict what it is. They found that GEODEs grow together with the universe during the time leading up to such collisions. From the orbital data, astronomers were able to refine the calculations of the mass to 4.3 million M☉ and a radius of less than 0.002 light years for the object causing the orbital motion of those stars. [82] At the event horizon of a black hole, this deformation becomes so strong that there are no paths that lead away from the black hole. Beyond a certain region, not even light can escape the powerful tug of a black hole's gravity. [145] A supermassive black hole with a mass of 1011 (100 billion) M☉ will evaporate in around 2×10100 years. [194] This result, now known as the second law of black hole mechanics, is remarkably similar to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease. So if we continue the progression of degeneracy, what happens when quarks break down? exist and would probably be something like the Planck scale in size. [182], It is now widely accepted that the center of nearly every galaxy, not just active ones, contains a supermassive black hole. Did you bother even reading my post immediately preceding yours? Perhaps there is a force that manifests when you start collapsing quarks into each other. If you time it right, you can even experience all three at once. [113], The ergosphere of a black hole is a volume whose inner boundary is the black hole's event horizon and an outer boundary called the ergosurface, which coincides with the event horizon at the poles but noticeably wider around the equator.[112]. Founded in 1956, the NRAO provides state-of-the-art radio telescope facilities for use by the international scientific community. My own assertion is that there is nothing inside.

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