Juno admired the necklace and asked where she could get one. Through his identification with the Hephaestus of Greek mythology, Vulcan came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewelry, and armor for various gods and heroes, including the lightning bolts of Jupiter. He had placed on the site a bronze quadriga dedicated to the god, a war trophy from the Fidenates.  Vulcan became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking. He was selected from among people who had already held public office in Ostia or in the imperial administration. Vulcan was also father of the monster Cacus, who was killed by Hercules for stealing his cattle, as Virgil relates in Book VIII of the Aeneid.  Meid and Vasily Abaev have proposed on their side a matching theonym in the Ossetic legendary smith of the Nart saga Kurd-Alä-Wärgon ("the Alan smith Wärgon"), and postulated an original PIE smith god named *wl̩kānos. Gabbler. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Festus writes: "Parilibus Romulus Vrbem condidit, quem diem festum praecipue habebant iuniores." Vulcan was born extremely ugly. The flamen Vulcanalis officiated at a sacrifice to the goddess Maia, held every year at the Kalendae of May. , At the beginning of the 20th century, behind the Arch of Septimius Severus were found some ancient tufaceous foundations that probably belonged to the Volcanal and traces of a rocky platform, 3.95 meters long and 2.80 meters wide, that had been covered with concrete and painted in red. On the third day he beat the cooled metal into shapes: bracelets, chains, swords and shields. His Greek equivalent is the god Hephaestus. He even made slave-girls of gold to wait on him and do his bidding. Volcanus". In Etruscan religion, he is identified with Sethlans. It was the highest administrative position in the town of Ostia.  But since the name in its normal form is stable and has a clear meaning—kurd ("smith") + on ("of the family") + Alaeg (the name of one of the Nartic families)—this hypothesis has been considered unacceptable by Dumezil. Vulcan made pearl-handled knives and spoons for his foster mother, he made a silver chariot for himself, and bridles so that seahorses could transport him quickly. Late in his childhood, he found the remains of a fisherman's fire on the beach and became fascinated with an unextinguished coal, still red-hot and glowing. Prine died on April 7, age 73, a victim of the COVID-19 virus pandemic. , Another custom observed on this day required that one should start working by the light of a candle, probably to propitiate a beneficial use of fire by the god. , According to Hyginus' Fabulae, the sons of Vulcan are Philammon, Cecrops, Erichthonius, Corynetes, Cercyon, Philottus, and Spinther. Juno was furious and demanded that Vulcan return home, a demand that he refused. The hypothesis has been suggested that this was Vulcan's area itself. Unfortunately, one of his legs broke as he hit the water, and never developed properly. Poetically, he is given all the attributes of the Greek Hephaestus. Since the territory of the city of Rome was seen as a magnified temple in itself, the three fires should be identified as the hearth of the landlord in the temple of Vesta (aedes Vestae); the sacrificial fires of each temple, shrine or altar; and the defensive fire in the temple of Vulcan. The nature of the god is connected with religious ideas concerning fire. At the same time a red bull-calf and red boar were added to the sacrifices made on the Vulcanalia, at least in that region of the city.. The more she shrieked and struggled the more firmly the mechanical throne gripped her; the chair was a cleverly designed trap. Though the name Vulcan won a popular vote, the International Astronomical Union decided in June 2013 to finalize the names as Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra..  The hypothesis has been presented that the Volcanal was founded when the Forum was still outside the town walls. In Dumézil's interpretation the Vulturnalia were associated with the protection of riping grapes from a hot and dry southwestern wind named Vulturnus, not with the river Tiber, as Mommsen had supposed, or Vulturnus of Campania. , According to Martin L. West, Volcanus may represent a god of the fire named *Volca and attached to the suffix -no-, the typical appendage indicating the god's domain in Indo-European languages. , The Volcanal was perhaps used as a cremation site, as suggested by the early use of the Forum as a burial site. He was chosen for life, perhaps by the council of the decuriones, and his position was the equivalent of the pontifex maximus in Rome. While the festivals of July dealt with untamed nature (woods) and waters (superficial waters the Neptunalia and underground waters the Furrinalia) at a time of danger caused by their relative deficiency, those of August were devoted to the results of human endeavour on nature with the storing of harvested grain (Consualia) and their relationship to human society and regality (Opiconsivia) which at that time were at risk and required protection from the dangers of the excessive strength of the two elements of fire (Vulcanalia) and wind (Vulturnalia) reinforced by dryness. The Mediterranean Pregreek conception is apparent in the depiction of Velchanos as a young man sitting upon a fork of a tree on coins from Phaistos dating from 322 to 300 BC, showing him as a god of vegetation and springtime: the tree is the symbol of the union of Heaven and Earth and their generative power, i. e. the site of the union of the god and the goddess. His statue stands on top of Sheffield Town Hall.  Plutarch states that Romulus was represented crowned by Victory. , On the grounds of a fragmentary inscription found at Annaba (ancient Hippo Regius), it is considered possible that the writer Suetonius had held this office.. His chief festival, the Volcanalia, was held Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He is often depicted with a blacksmith's hammer. In all of the above-mentioned stories the god's fertilizing power is related to that of the fire of the house hearth. A flamen, one of the flamines minors, named flamen Vulcanalis was in charge of the cult of the god. He even made slave-girls of gold to wait on him and do his bidding. Vulcan fell down for a day and a night, landing in the sea.  The Volcanalia sacrifice was offered here to Vulcan, on August 23.  This habit might reflect a theological connection between Vulcan and the divinized Sun. To punish mankind for stealing the secrets of fire, Jupiter ordered the other gods to make a poisoned gift for man.  However, Vulcan had a stronger association than Hephaestus with fire's destructive capacity, and a major concern of his worshippers was to encourage the god to avert harmful fires. Through his identification with the Hephaestus of Greek mythology, he came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewelry and armor for various gods and heroes, including the thunderbolts of Jupiter. , Vulcan's oldest shrine in Rome, called the Vulcanal, was situated at the foot of the Capitoline in the Forum Romanum, and was reputed to date to the archaic period of the kings of Rome, and to have been established on the site by Titus Tatius, the Sabine co-king, with a traditional date in the 8th century BC. Later it was found that the statue should be placed on a higher site, thus it was placed in the area Volcani. , In 304 BC a sacellum to Concordia was built in the area Volcani: it was dedicated by aedilis curulis Cnaeus Flavius. His role is often a "deus ex machina" one, but he and his wife (called Venus) are still essential to the overall plot.
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